Saturday, August 28, 2010



Quiz Question #1: Which of the following statements is factually correct? i) All countries having FoI / RTI have an explicit mention about FoI / RTI in their Constitutions. ii) There are some countries where there is FoI / RTI Law, but no explicit mention of FoI / RTI in the Constitution. iii) There are countries having FoI / RTI at the state / provincial / regional level in addition to the national level. iv) The national FoI / RTI laws of all countries have been enacted because the United Nations General Assembly has mandated them to do so.

Your Answer: C. ii) & iii)

Correct Answer: C. ii) & iii)

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: FoI / RTI finds a mention in:

Your Answer: D. All the above covenants.

Correct Answer: D. All the above covenants.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: FoI / RTI laws are also referred to as:

Your Answer: B. "open-government laws" and "sunshine laws"

Correct Answer: B. "open-government laws" and "sunshine laws"

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: Which organisation is known to have taken up the first grassroots initiative for people`s RTI?

Your Answer: C. Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan` (MKSS)

Correct Answer: C. Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan` (MKSS)

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: The second State to enact a law on RTI was

Your Answer: D. Goa

Correct Answer: D. Goa

Reason: Correct. Goa did so in 1997

Quiz Question #3: Which was the State in which local authorities started providing people access to certain information related to the `Public Distribution System` (PDS) even before the State Assembly introduced / passed an RTI Act?

Your Answer: B. Madhya Pradesh

Correct Answer: B. Madhya Pradesh

Reason: Correct. It happened in Madhya Pradesh in certain places like Bilaspur and Korba. This was before the State of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh in November 2000. The Madhya Pradesh Assembly passed the RTI Act in 2002.

Quiz Question #1: Information by applying under the `RTI Act, 2005` can be obtained by

Your Answer: B. any citizen of India.

Correct Answer: B. any citizen of India.

Reason: Correct. Section 3 of the `RTI Act, 2005` states that subject to the provisions of the Act, all citizens chall have the right to information

Quiz Question #2: How many chapters does the `RTI Act, 2005` have?

Your Answer: A. 6

Correct Answer: A. 6

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: Right to information is available under the `Right to Information Act, 2005`

Your Answer: D. to all Indian citizens.

Correct Answer: D. to all Indian citizens.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: Who is expected to and authorised to make Rules under the `RTI Act, 2005`?

Your Answer: D. Both a. & b.

Correct Answer: D. Both a. & b.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: Appropriate Government under the `RTI Act, 2005` could be: i) State Government. ii) Central Government. iii) Local Government. iv) Government of a country / countries with whom India has bilateral / multilateral pacts.

Your Answer: C. Either i) or ii).

Correct Answer: C. Either i) or ii).

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: The guidelines to be published and updated by an Appropriate Government should cover, among other things: i) Objects of the `RTI Act, 2005`. ii) manner and form of making a request to PIOs. iii) Assistance available form Central / State Information Commission.

Your Answer: A. All i), ii) & iii).

Correct Answer: A. All i), ii) & iii).

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: The `RTI Act, 2005` stipulates that a Public Authority should transfer an RTI application or a part thereof to another Public Authority if the application or a part of it pertains to information

Your Answer: C. Both a. and b.

Correct Answer: C. Both a. and b.

Reason: Correct. This has been stipulated by S. 6(3) of the `RTI Act, 2005`

Quiz Question #2: Under `RTI Act, 2005`, what was the deadline for all Public Authorities to, suo motu, publish information?

Your Answer: C. 12th October, 2005.

Correct Answer: C. 12th October, 2005.

Reason: Correct. Section 7(1) of the `RTI Act, 2005` states, among other things, that "… where information sought for concers the life and liberty of a person, the same shall be provided within forty-eight hours of the receipt of the request"

Quiz Question #3: The Act requires the designation within a `Public Authority` of

Your Answer: D. All the above

Correct Answer: D. All the above

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: An Information Commissioner can be removed from office on grounds of i) conviction in an offence involving moral turpitude. ii) acquiring a financial interest pejudicially affecting the functions as an Information Commissioner or engaging in a paid employment. iii) infirmity of body and / or mind. iv) being adjudged an insolvent.

Your Answer: A. All i), ii), iii) & iv)

Correct Answer: A. All i), ii), iii) & iv)

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: Like, the High Courts, there is a provision under the `RTI Act, 2005` to constitute one common State Information Commission for more than 1 State.

Your Answer: B. No. Every State Government should constitute an Information Commission for the State concerned.

Correct Answer: B. No. Every State Government should constitute an Information Commission for the State concerned.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: (Second) Appeals on information pertaining to a person`s life and liberty should be decided by Information Commissions within

Your Answer: D. No such time limit has been specified.

Correct Answer: D. No such time limit has been specified.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: Notice of the a PIO`s decision about disclosing or not disclosing third party information should be given to the third party

Your Answer: C. within 40 days of receipt of the application.

Correct Answer: C. within 40 days of receipt of the application.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: Which of the following are true?

Your Answer: D. All are true.

Correct Answer: D. All are true.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: "Deemed refusal" under the `RTI Act, 2005` is

Your Answer: A. A failure on a PIO`s part to provide information within the specified time limits.

Correct Answer: A. A failure on a PIO`s part to provide information within the specified time limits.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: The First Appellate Authority has the discretion to admit appeals preferred by a third party after 30 days

Your Answer: B. There is no such discretion available to the First Appellate Authority.

Correct Answer: B. There is no such discretion available to the First Appellate Authority.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: The First Appellate Authority

Your Answer: A. should be senior to all the Public Information Officers within the unit of a Public Authority concerned.

Correct Answer: A. should be senior to all the Public Information Officers within the unit of a Public Authority concerned.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: The First Appellate Authority should decide on first appeals i) within 30 days from the receipt of the first appeals. ii) in less number of days that the PIO concerned took to take a decision on the application. iii) within 45 days from the date of receipt of the appeal, if the reasons are recorded.

Your Answer: C. Only i) & iii).

Correct Answer: C. Only i) & iii).

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: While inquiring into a complaint, Information Commissions have the power to i) summon and enforce attendance of persons. ii) compel them to give evidence on oath and produce documents or things. iii) Require discovery and inspection of documents.

Your Answer: C. All i), ii) & iii).

Correct Answer: C. All i), ii) & iii).

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: While inquiring into a complaint, Information Commissions have the power to i) receive evidence on affidavit. ii) requisition record or copies thereof from any court or office. iii) issue summons for examination of witnesses or documents.

Your Answer: B. All i), ii) & iii).

Correct Answer: B. All i), ii) & iii).

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: Consider the following. A PIO: i) malafidely denies information. ii) obstructed furnishing information. iii) knowingly gave incorrect, incomplete or misleading information. For which of these actions can he / she be penalised by an Information Commission.

Your Answer: A. Any or all of these.

Correct Answer: A. Any or all of these.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: There are certain exemptions with respect to the information that can be provided under the `RTI Act, 2005`.

Your Answer: A. True.

Correct Answer: A. True.

Reason: Correct. Exemptions are in the form of certain types of information being exempted as stipulated by Ss. 8 and 9. As and where these exemptions are applicable, information can be entirely / partially rejected.

Quiz Question #2: PIO should disclose information exempted in S. 8(1) if public interest in disclosure outweighs the harm to the protected interests.

Your Answer: B. Yes.

Correct Answer: B. Yes.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: Whose decision shall be final regarding computation of the period of 20 years as the time period till which information is to be given?

Your Answer: C. Central Government.

Correct Answer: C. Central Government.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: The Second Schedule of the RTI Act, 2005 can be amended by

Your Answer: B. the Central Government.

Correct Answer: B. the Central Government.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: The Second Schedule of the RTI Act, 2005 has so far been amended

Your Answer: D. 3 times.

Correct Answer: D. 3 times.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: Consider the following statements about amending the Second Schedule. i) The Central Government can amend it. ii) It can amend it by notification in the Official Gazette. iii) It can include any other intelligence and security organisation. iv) It can omit any already existing organisation. iv) Every such notification shall be laid before each House of the Parliament. Which of these statements are true?

Your Answer: A. They are all true.

Correct Answer: A. They are all true.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #1: After the enactment of the `RTI Act, 2005`, what is the status of the `Freedom of Information Act, 2002`?

Your Answer: C. It has been repealed.

Correct Answer: C. It has been repealed.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #2: What is the time span mentioned in the `RTI Act, 2005` for making orders for removing difficulties in giving effect to the provisions of the `RTI Act, 2005`?

Your Answer: A. 2 years from the commencement of the Act.

Correct Answer: A. 2 years from the commencement of the Act.

Reason: Correct.

Quiz Question #3: Consider the following statements about "Bar on jurisdiction of courts" vis-avis the `RTI Act, 2005`. i) No court shall entertain any suit, application or other proceeding in respect of any order made under this Act. ii) No such order shall be called in question otherwise than by way of an appeal under this Act. Which of these statements is true?

Your Answer: D. Both i) & ii) are true.

Correct Answer: D. Both i) & ii) are true.

Reason: Correct.

the material and question answer is to aware the people with the basic concept on RTI ACT 2005

Saturday, August 21, 2010

List of Nobel laureates


1969: Ragnar Frisch / Jan Tinbergen

1970: Paul A. Samuelson

1971: Simon Kuznets

1972: John Hicks / Kenneth J. Arrow

1973: Wassily Leontief

1974: Gunnar Myrdal / Friedrich August von Hayek

1975: Leonid Kantorovich / Tjalling C. Koopmans

1976: Milton Friedman

1977: Bertil Ohlin / James Edward Meade

1978: Herbert A. Simon

1979: Theodore William Schultz / Sir Arthur Lewis

1980: Lawrence R. Klein

1981: James Tobin

1982: George J. Stigler

1983: Gerard Debreu

1984: Richard Stone

1985: Franco Modigliani

1986: James McGill Buchanan, Jr.

1987: Robert M. Solow

1988: Maurice Allais

1989: Trygve Haavelmo

1990: Harry M. Markowitz / Merton H. Miller / William F. Sharpe

1991: Ronald H. Coase

1992: Gary S. Becker

1993: Robert W. Fogel / Douglass C. North

1994: John C. Harsanyi / John Forbes Nash, Jr. / Reinhard Selten

1995: Robert Lucas, Jr.

1996: James A. Mirrlees / William Vickrey

1997: Robert C. Merton / Myron S. Scholes

1998: Amartya Sen

1999: Robert A. Mundell

2000: James J. Heckman / Daniel L. McFadden

2001: George A. Akerlof / A. Michael Spence / Joseph E. Stiglitz

2002: Daniel Kahneman / Vernon L. Smith

2003: Robert F. Engle III / Clive W. J. Granger

2004: Finn E. Kydland / Edward C. Prescott

2005: Robert J. Aumann / Thomas C. Schelling

2006: Edmund S. Phelps

2007: Leonid Hurwicz / Eric S. Maskin / Roger B. Myerson

List of Nobel laureates


1901: Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy

1902: Élie Ducommun / Albert Gobat

1903: Randal Cremer

1904: Institute of International Law

1905: Bertha von Suttner

1906: Theodore Roosevelt

1907: Ernesto Teodoro Moneta / Louis Renault

1908: Klas Pontus Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer

1909: Auguste Beernaert / Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant

1910: Permanent International Peace Bureau

1911: Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried

1912: Elihu Root

1913: Henri La Fontaine

1914: no award

1915: no award

1916: no award

1917: International Committee of the Red Cross

1918: no award

1919: Woodrow Wilson

1920: Léon Bourgeois

1921: Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange

1922: Fridtjof Nansen

1923: no award

1924: no award

1925: Sir Austen Chamberlain / Charles G. Dawes

1926: Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann

1927: Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde

1928: no award

1929: Frank B. Kellogg

1930: Nathan Söderblom

1931: Jane Addams / Nicholas Murray Butler

1932: no award

1933: Sir Norman Angell

1934: Arthur Henderson

1935: Carl von Ossietzky

1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas

1937: The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood

1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees

1939: no award

1940: no award

1941: no award

1942: no award

1943: no award

1944: International Committee of the Red Cross

1945: Cordell Hull

1946: Emily Greene Balch / John R. Mott

1947: Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee

1948: no award

1949: Lord Boyd Orr

1950: Ralph Bunche

1951: Léon Jouhaux

1952: Albert Schweitzer

1953: George C. Marshall

1954: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1955: no award

1956: no award

1957: Lester Bowles Pearson

1958: Georges Pire

1959: Philip Noel-Baker

1960: Albert Lutuli

1961: Dag Hammarskjöld (posthumous)

1962: Linus Pauling

1963: International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies

1964: Martin Luther King, Jr.

1965: United Nations Children's Fund

1966: no award

1967: no award

1968: René Cassin

1969: International Labour Organization

1970: Norman Borlaug

1971: Willy Brandt

1972: no award

1973: Henry Kissinger / Le Duc Tho (refused)

1974: Seán MacBride / Eisaku Sato

1975: Andrei Sakharov

1976: Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan

1977: Amnesty International

1978: Anwar al-Sadat / Menachem Begin

1979: Mother Teresa

1980: Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

1981: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1982: Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles

1983: Lech Wałęsa

1984: Desmond Tutu

1985: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

1986: Elie Wiesel

1987: Óscar Arias

1988: United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

1989: Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama

1990: Mikhail Gorbachev

1991: Aung San Suu Kyi

1992: Rigoberta Menchú

1993: Nelson Mandela / F.W. de Klerk

1994: Yasser Arafat / Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin

1995: Joseph Rotblat / Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

1996: Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo / José Ramos-Horta

1997: International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams

1998: John Hume / David Trimble

1999: Médecins Sans Frontières

2000: Kim Dae-jung

2001: United Nations / Kofi Annan

2002: Jimmy Carter

2003: Shirin Ebadi

2004: Wangari Maathai

2005: International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei

2006: Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus

2007: Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

2008: Martti Ahtisaari

List of Nobel laureates

Physiology or medicine

1901: Emil von Behring

1902: Ronald Ross

1903: Niels Ryberg Finsen

1904: Ivan Pavlov

1905: Robert Koch

1906: Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal

1907: Alphonse Laveran

1908: Ilya Mechnikov / Paul Ehrlich

1909: Theodor Kocher

1910: Albrecht Kossel

1911: Allvar Gullstrand

1912: Alexis Carrel

1913: Robert Bárány

1914: no award

1915: no award

1916: no award

1917: no award

1918: no award

1919: Jules Bordet

1920: August Krogh

1921: no award

1922: Archibald Vivian Hill / Otto Meyerhof

1923: Frederick G. Banting / John James Richard Macleod

1924: Willem Einthoven

1925: no award

1926: Johannes Fibiger

1927: Julius Wagner-Jauregg

1928: Charles Nicolle

1929: Christiaan Eijkman / Sir Frederick Hopkins

1930: Karl Landsteiner

1931: Otto Heinrich Warburg

1932: Sir Charles Sherrington / Edgar Adrian

1933: Thomas H. Morgan

1934: George H. Whipple / George R. Minot / William P. Murphy

1935: Hans Spemann

1936: Sir Henry Dale / Otto Loewi

1937: Albert Szent-Györgyi

1938: Corneille Heymans

1939: Gerhard Domagk

1940: no award

1941: no award

1942: no award

1943: Henrik Dam / Edward A. Doisy

1944: Joseph Erlanger / Herbert S. Gasser

1945: Sir Alexander Fleming / Ernst B. Chain / Sir Howard Florey

1946: Hermann J. Muller

1947: Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay

1948: Paul Müller

1949: Walter Hess / Egas Moniz

1950: Edward C. Kendall / Tadeus Reichstein / Philip S. Hench

1951: Max Theiler

1952: Selman A. Waksman

1953: Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann

1954: John Franklin Enders / Thomas Huckle Weller / Frederick Chapman Robbins

1955: Hugo Theorell

1956: André F. Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards

1957: Daniel Bovet

1958: George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg

1959: Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg

1960: Frank Macfarlane Burnet / Peter Medawar

1961: Georg von Békésy

1962: Francis Crick / James D. Watson / Maurice Wilkins

1963: Sir John Eccles / Alan L. Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley

1964: Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen

1965: François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod

1966: Peyton Rous / Charles B. Huggins

1967: Ragnar Granit / Haldan K. Hartline / George Wald

1968: Robert W. Holley / H. Gobind Khorana / Marshall W. Nirenberg

1969: Max Delbrück / Alfred D. Hershey / Salvador E. Luria

1970: Sir Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod

1971: Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

1972: Gerald M. Edelman / Rodney R. Porter

1973: Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen

1974: Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George E. Palade

1975: David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco / Howard M. Temin

1976: Baruch S. Blumberg / D. Carleton Gajdusek

1977: Roger Guillemin / Andrew V. Schally / Rosalyn Yalow

1978: Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith

1979: Allan M. Cormack / Godfrey N. Hounsfield

1980: Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George D. Snell

1981: Roger W. Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten N. Wiesel

1982: Sune K. Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John R. Vane

1983: Barbara McClintock

1984: Niels K. Jerne / Georges J.F. Köhler / César Milstein

1985: Michael S. Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein

1986: Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini

1987: Susumu Tonegawa

1988: James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings

1989: J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus

1990: Joseph E. Murray / E. Donnall Thomas

1991: Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann

1992: Edmond H. Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs

1993: Richard J. Roberts / Phillip A. Sharp

1994: Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell

1995: Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F. Wieschaus

1996: Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel

1997: Stanley B. Prusiner

1998: Robert F. Furchgott / Louis J. Ignarro / Ferid Murad

1999: Günter Blobel

2000: Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard / Eric R. Kandel

2001: Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Sir Paul Nurse

2002: Sydney Brenner / H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston

2003: Paul C. Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield

2004: Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck

2005: Barry J. Marshall / J. Robin Warren

2006: Andrew Z. Fire / Craig C. Mello

2007: Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies

2008: Harald zur Hausen / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi / Luc Montagnier


1901: Sully Prudhomme

1902: Theodor Mommsen

1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson

1904: Frédéric Mistral / José Echegaray

1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz

1906: Giosuè Carducci

1907: Rudyard Kipling

1908: Rudolf Eucken

1909: Selma Lagerlöf

1910: Paul Heyse

1911: Maurice Maeterlinck

1912: Gerhart Hauptmann

1913: Rabindranath Tagore

1914: no award

1915: Romain Rolland

1916: Verner von Heidenstam

1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan

1918: no award

1919: Carl Spitteler

1920: Knut Hamsun

1921: Anatole France

1922: Jacinto Benavente

1923: William Butler Yeats

1924: Władysław Reymont

1925: George Bernard Shaw

1926: Grazia Deledda

1927: Henri Bergson

1928: Sigrid Undset

1929: Thomas Mann

1930: Sinclair Lewis

1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt

1932: John Galsworthy

1933: Ivan Bunin

1934: Luigi Pirandello

1935: no award

1936: Eugene O'Neill

1937: Roger Martin du Gard

1938: Pearl Buck

1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää

1940: no award

1941: no award

1942: no award

1943: no award

1944: Johannes V. Jensen

1945: Gabriela Mistral

1946: Hermann Hesse

1947: André Gide

1948: T. S. Eliot

1949: William Faulkner

1950: Bertrand Russell

1951: Pär Lagerkvist

1952: François Mauriac

1953: Winston Churchill

1954: Ernest Hemingway

1955: Halldór Laxness

1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez

1957: Albert Camus

1958: Boris Pasternak

1959: Salvatore Quasimodo

1960: Saint-John Perse

1961: Ivo Andrić

1962: John Steinbeck

1963: Giorgos Seferis

1964: Jean-Paul Sartre (refused)[1]

1965: Mikhail Sholokhov

1966: Samuel Agnon / Nelly Sachs

1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias

1968: Yasunari Kawabata

1969: Samuel Beckett

1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

1971: Pablo Neruda

1972: Heinrich Böll

1973: Patrick White

1974: Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson

1975: Eugenio Montale

1976: Saul Bellow

1977: Vicente Aleixandre

1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer

1979: Odysseus Elytis

1980: Czesław Miłosz

1981: Elias Canetti

1982: Gabriel García Márquez

1983: William Golding

1984: Jaroslav Seifert

1985: Claude Simon

1986: Wole Soyinka

1987: Joseph Brodsky

1988: Naguib Mahfouz

1989: Camilo José Cela

1990: Octavio Paz

1991: Nadine Gordimer

1992: Derek Walcott

1993: Toni Morrison

1994: Kenzaburo Oe

1995: Seamus Heaney

1996: Wisława Szymborska

1997: Dario Fo

1998: José Saramago

1999: Günter Grass

2000: Gao Xingjian

2001: V. S. Naipaul

2002: Imre Kertész

2003: J. M. Coetzee

2004: Elfriede Jelinek

2005: Harold Pinter

2006: Orhan Pamuk

2007: Doris Lessing

2008: Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio



1901: Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

1902: Emil Fischer

1903: Svante Arrhenius

1904: Sir William Ramsay

1905: Adolf von Baeyer

1906: Henri Moissan

1907: Eduard Buchner

1908: Ernest Rutherford

1909: Wilhelm Ostwald

1910: Otto Wallach

1911: Maria Skłodowska-Curie

1912: Victor Grignard / Paul Sabatier

1913: Alfred Werner

1914: Theodore William Richards

1915: Richard Willstätter

1916: no award

1917: no award

1918: Fritz Haber

1919: no award

1920: Walther Nernst

1921: Frederick Soddy

1922: Francis W. Aston

1923: Fritz Pregl

1924: no award

1925: Richard Zsigmondy

1926: The Svedberg

1927: Heinrich Wieland

1928: Adolf Windaus

1929: Arthur Harden / Hans von Euler-Chelpin

1930: Hans Fischer

1931: Carl Bosch / Friedrich Bergius

1932: Irving Langmuir

1933: no award

1934: Harold C. Urey

1935: Frédéric Joliot-Curie / Irène Joliot-Curie

1936: Peter Debye

1937: Norman Haworth / Paul Karrer

1938: Richard Kuhn

1939: Adolf Butenandt / Leopold Ruzicka

1940: no award

1941: no award

1942: no award

1943: George de Hevesy

1944: Otto Hahn

1945: Artturi Virtanen

1946: James B. Sumner / John H. Northrop / Wendell M. Stanley

1947: Sir Robert Robinson

1948: Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

1949: William F. Giauque

1950: Otto Diels / Kurt Alder

1951: Edwin M. McMillan / Glenn T. Seaborg

1952: Archer J.P. Martin / Richard L.M. Synge

1953: Hermann Staudinger

1954: Linus Pauling

1955: Vincent du Vigneaud

1956: Sir Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semenov

1957: Lord Todd

1958: Frederick Sanger

1959: Jaroslav Heyrovský

1960: Willard F. Libby

1961: Melvin Calvin

1962: Max F. Perutz / John C. Kendrew

1963: Karl Ziegler / Giulio Natta

1964: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

1965: Robert Burns Woodward

1966: Robert S. Mulliken

1967: Manfred Eigen / Ronald G.W. Norrish / George Porter

1968: Lars Onsager

1969: Derek Barton / Odd Hassel

1970: Luis Leloir

1971: Gerhard Herzberg

1972: Christian Anfinsen / Stanford Moore / William H. Stein

1973: Ernst Otto Fischer / Geoffrey Wilkinson

1974: Paul J. Flory

1975: John Cornforth / Vladimir Prelog

1976: William Lipscomb

1977: Ilya Prigogine

1978: Peter Mitchell

1979: Herbert C. Brown / Georg Wittig

1980: Paul Berg / Walter Gilbert / Frederick Sanger

1981: Kenichi Fukui / Roald Hoffmann

1982: Aaron Klug

1983: Henry Taube

1984: Bruce Merrifield

1985: Herbert A. Hauptman / Jerome Karle

1986: Dudley R. Herschbach / Yuan T. Lee / John C. Polanyi

1987: Donald J. Cram / Jean-Marie Lehn / Charles J. Pedersen

1988: Johann Deisenhofer / Robert Huber / Hartmut Michel

1989: Sidney Altman / Thomas R. Cech

1990: Elias James Corey

1991: Richard R. Ernst

1992: Rudolph A. Marcus

1993: Kary B. Mullis / Michael Smith

1994: George A. Olah

1995: Paul J. Crutzen / Mario J. Molina / F. Sherwood Rowland

1996: Robert F. Curl, Jr. / Sir Harold Kroto / Richard E. Smalley

1997: Paul D. Boyer / John E. Walker / Jens C. Skou

1998: Walter Kohn / John Pople

1999: Ahmed Zewail

2000: Alan Heeger / Alan G. MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001: William S. Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless

2002: John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka / Kurt Wüthrich

2003: Peter Agre / Roderick MacKinnon

2004: Aaron Ciechanover / Avram Hershko / Irwin Rose

2005: Robert Grubbs / Richard Schrock / Yves Chauvin

2006: Roger D. Kornberg

2007: Gerhard Ertl

2008: Osamu Shimomura / Martin Chalfie / Roger Y. Tsien

Friday, August 20, 2010

List of Nobel laureates FOR PHYSICS



1901: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

1902: Hendrik A. Lorentz / Pieter Zeeman

1903: Henri Becquerel / Pierre Curie / Maria Sklodowska-Curie

1904: Lord Rayleigh

1905: Philipp Lenard

1906: J.J. Thomson

1907: Albert A. Michelson

1908: Gabriel Lippmann

1909: Guglielmo Marconi / Ferdinand Braun

1910: Johannes Diderik van der Waals

1911: Wilhelm Wien

1912: Gustaf Dalén

1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

1914: Max von Laue

1915: William Henry Bragg / William Lawrence Bragg

1916: no award

1917: Charles Glover Barkla

1918: Max Planck

1919: Johannes Stark

1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume

1921: Albert Einstein

1922: Niels Bohr

1923: Robert A. Millikan

1924: Manne Siegbahn

1925: James Franck / Gustav Hertz

1926: Jean Baptiste Perrin

1927: Arthur H. Compton / C.T.R. Wilson

1928: Owen Willans Richardson

1929: Louis de Broglie

1930: Venkata Raman

1931: no award

1932: Werner Heisenberg

1933: Erwin Schrödinger / Paul A.M. Dirac

1934: no award

1935: James Chadwick

1936: Victor F. Hess / Carl D. Anderson

1937: Clinton Davisson / George Paget Thomson

1938: Enrico Fermi

1939: Ernest Lawrence

1940: no award

1941: no award

1942: no award

1943: Otto Stern

1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi

1945: Wolfgang Pauli

1946: Percy W. Bridgman

1947: Edward V. Appleton

1948: Patrick M.S. Blackett

1949: Hideki Yukawa

1950: Cecil Powell

1951: John Cockcroft / Ernest T.S. Walton

1952: Felix Bloch / E. M. Purcell

1953: Frits Zernike

1954: Max Born / Walther Bothe

1955: Willis E. Lamb / Polykarp Kusch

1956: William B. Shockley / John Bardeen / Walter H. Brattain

1957: Chen Ning Yang / Tsung-Dao Lee

1958: Pavel A. Cherenkov / Il´ja M. Frank / Igor Y. Tamm

1959: Emilio Segrè / Owen Chamberlain

1960: Donald A. Glaser

1961: Robert Hofstadter / Rudolf Mössbauer

1962: Lev Landau

1963: Eugene Wigner / Maria Goeppert-Mayer / J. Hans D. Jensen

1964: Charles H. Townes / Nicolay G. Basov / Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

1965: Sin-Itiro Tomonaga / Julian Schwinger / Richard P. Feynman

1966: Alfred Kastler

1967: Hans Bethe

1968: Luis Alvarez

1969: Murray Gell-Mann

1970: Hannes Alfvén / Louis Néel

1971: Dennis Gabor

1972: John Bardeen / Leon Neil Cooper / Robert Schrieffer

1973: Leo Esaki / Ivar Giaever / Brian D. Josephson

1974: Martin Ryle / Antony Hewish

1975: Aage N. Bohr / Ben R. Mottelson / James Rainwater

1976: Burton Richter / Samuel C.C. Ting

1977: Philip W. Anderson / Sir Nevill F. Mott / John H. van Vleck

1978: Pyotr Kapitsa / Arno Penzias / Robert Woodrow Wilson

1979: Sheldon Glashow / Abdus Salam / Steven Weinberg

1980: James Cronin / Val Fitch

1981: Nicolaas Bloembergen / Arthur L. Schawlow / Kai M. Siegbahn

1982: Kenneth G. Wilson

1983: Subramanyan Chandrasekhar / William A. Fowler

1984: Carlo Rubbia / Simon van der Meer

1985: Klaus von Klitzing

1986: Ernst Ruska / Gerd Binnig / Heinrich Rohrer

1987: J. Georg Bednorz / K. Alex Müller

1988: Leon M. Lederman / Melvin Schwartz / Jack Steinberger

1989: Norman F. Ramsey / Hans G. Dehmelt / Wolfgang Paul

1990: Jerome I. Friedman / Henry W. Kendall / Richard E. Taylor

1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

1992: Georges Charpak

1993: Russell A. Hulse / Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.

1994: Bertram N. Brockhouse / Clifford G. Shull

1995: Martin L. Perl / Frederick Reines

1996: David M. Lee / Douglas D. Osheroff / Robert Coleman Richardson

1997: Steven Chu / Claude Cohen-Tannoudji / William D. Phillips

1998: Robert B. Laughlin / Horst L. Störmer / Daniel C. Tsui

1999: Gerardus 't Hooft / Martinus J.G. Veltman

2000: Zhores I. Alferov / Herbert Kroemer / Jack S. Kilby

2001: Eric A. Cornell / Wolfgang Ketterle / Carl E. Wieman

2002: Raymond Davis, Jr. / Masatoshi Koshiba / Riccardo Giacconi

2003: Alexei A. Abrikosov / Vitaly L. Ginzburg / Anthony J. Leggett

2004: David J. Gross / H. David Politzer / Frank Wilczek

2005: Roy J. Glauber / John L. Hall / Theodor W. Hänsch

2006: John C. Mather / George F. Smoot

2007: Albert Fert / Peter Grünberg

2008: Yoichiro Nambu / Makoto Kobayashi / Toshihide Maskawa

Thursday, August 19, 2010

FAQs- Frequently Asked Questions ON CERTIFICATE COURSE ON RTI Act'2005

FAQs- Frequently Asked Questions

1. How do I login?

Response: Type the URL: (OR) Click on the link RTIOCC. You will go to the Home page of the application. Click on the link “Click here to login”. Then, enter your userid and password.

2. Where is my userid and password?

Response: The Administrator sends the userid and password through email to the registered users as per the mail id logged in by them on first-come-first-served basis.

3. When I login, I am unable to view the Course?

Response: There are two requirements that are mandated to access the course. 1) You must have Internet Explorer (IE) 7.0 or higher version OR Mozilla Firefox 2.0 OR Google chrome and 2) FOXIT OR Adobe Acrobat PDF reader to view the contents in the course. Check with your system administrator if your system has these two. In case your system does not have both or any of the two, you may download the same from the internet for free. The RTIOCC website also gives you a link to download FOXIT PDF reader, if you do not have the same.

4. How do I see the Modules?

Response: When you login into the system, Select Take Course in the Menu Course to view the modules.

5. What is the duration of the course?

Response: The total duration of the course is 15 days with 2 slots of 12 days of course work and 3 days of examination. A candidate may / could complete the course work (i.e,. study of modules) at her / his convenience at a single point of time. It is estimated that each chapter and its respective quiz can be completed in one hour.

6. Why cannot I see the next modules?

Response: You should have the required system requirements to view the modules as mentioned in FAQ3. Also, one has to score 2/3 in two chapters and at least 3/3 in one chapter of a module to move ahead to the next module. For instance, if you are in module 1, there are three chapters in this module. You will have to score 3/3 in the quiz in any one of the chapters and at least 2/3 in the other two to move ahead.

7. How do I register for the next batch?

Response: The first call for registrations have been closed. The first batch of 60 candidates (selected by DoPT) commenced from 07.09.2009. The user ID and passwords are issued for those who have been selected on the basis of their registration at the first call on a first come first serve basis.

We have received an overwhelming response at the time of first announcement for registration to this course. Hence, for some time we will accommodate, all those who have already registered.

A second call would be announced on this very site and on the website of CGG and the RTI Net site as soon as the first registered are completed. When fresh registrations begin, they will be announced in the same manner as the registration for the first batch was announced. One can register for this course then.

Details about the course as they apply for subsequent batches will be announced along with the announcement for fresh registrations.

8. How do I see the Discussion Forum?

Response: When you login into the system to take the course, a window on the right side has the Discussion Forum written above a window in red colour. Your comments may be sent through a window below it, by typing your query and submitting it as send. Your query will then appear in the Discussion Forum and be answered by either the fellow batch-mates, if they are in know of the issues or by a team of Moderators. A day-wise archive of the discussions can also be viewed when you click on the day-wise links.

9. What is the examination pattern?

Response: Every candidate who qualifies to take the examination, (after having answered the necessary number of quiz questions correctly at the end of each chapter / module as per FAQ 6) will be given two `case narrations` - during the examination. Each `case narration` will have two questions. In all, thus, there will be 4 questions – which are of descriptive nature - which should - each - be answered in not more than 150 words. Each question will have 25 marks totaling the marks for the examination to 100. A candidate will have to score 50% marks to qualify the examination and to get an e-Certificate. Based upon a candidate's performance, above 50%, he / she would be placed in Grades of A / B / C.

10. How do I know the answers to the quiz questions that I have answered wrong?

Response: After you login, go to the Reports menu and click on the “Quiz answers” to see the correct answers.

11. Do I get a placement in Government after taking the course?

Response: The online course is meant to build awareness on the Right to Information Act and is in no way guaranteeing any employment to any candidate in Government or elsewhere.


A list of PIOs/APIOs and Appellate Authorities for all Central and State departments/Ministries is available online at if Ms.Prasanna go to the official web site of KOTTAYAM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION she will definetly come to know about the person with whom she can register her complaint under the RTI Act 2005.

In case Ms. Prasanna having problems locating her PIO/APIO she can address her RTI application to the PIO C/o Head of Department and send it to the concerned public authority with the requisite application fee. The Head of Department will have to forward her application to the concerned PIO.

Saturday, August 14, 2010


Praveer YS Raaj on CWG 2010: Its not only Mr. Suresh Kalamadi who iz resposible for what is happening now a days as far as CORRUPTION in CWG2010 OC is concerned.The first mistake was that The congress itself given free hand to MR.Kalamadi to any thing.It should not be happened.This is a big event for our country and it would not be handeled single handly as it happened.There was time when Mr Kalamadi thought that his position was above SPORTS MINISTRY.I think Mr.Mani Shankar Aiyer was right that time when he questioned capability and HONESTY of Mr.Suresh Kalamadi.I think we will get some similerity in CWG2010 and MADHU KODA's JHARKHAND episode when we will be at the threshold of the Yera 2011...

Monday, August 02, 2010



1)BANKING 1M3 grew by 14 percent – last year 16.6%

2) BANK CREDIT sector increase of 20.4

3)M0GREW 14.1 – LAST YEAR 16.7% 4)Total bank credit increased by 14.2% 5) RIDF_ setup1995 1996 maintained By NABARD _mainobjective to provide loans to state government 6)Kisan credit cards 1998 99-operated through Co-operative bank commercial bank andRRB 414 lakhs cards iissue, 4.35 Crores 7) Finance to self help gropu started in 1992-90% to women group 8) AIFI-iicicimerged with ICICI Bank in march 2002-IDBI Limitedand IDBI Bank merged – working group on development financing headed by N.SATHASIVAM



BANK RATE - 6.00 %

REPO RATE - 8.00 %


CRR - 8.25 %

SLR - 25.00 %

PLR - 12.75 % - 13.25 %


DEPOSIT RATE - 7.50 % - 9.60 %


1.Money market It refers to borrowing and lending. 2 parts organized and unorganized sector – Organized sector are State Bank, 7 associated banks, 19 Nationalised banks, RRB, Co-operative Banks, Non Governmental sector and other Banks. Unorganized includes the moneylenders and indigenous bankers. 2.Development of Indian Banking: Bank of Hindusthan 1779 was first bank at Calcuttaunder European management-Bank of Bengal 1806 , Bank of Bombay 1840, bank of Madras 1843, were called Presidency banks. 1881- First Bank with limited liability to be managed by Indian Board namely the Oudh Commercial bank- 1894- First purely Indian bank was Punjab National bank- Later Imperial bank 1921 by amalgamating the Presidency banks. RBI created in 1935- nationalized in 1949 – Imperial Bank, renamed as SBI in 1955- 14 Banks (50 crores) nationalized6-96 Banks (2 00crores) nationalized 1980 – N.B.I. merged with P.N.B. in 1993. 3.R.B.I: It has Governor and Board of Directors apart from Central Board 4 local boards. It has following functions: -

Functions Of Banks :

1.Issue of Notes: followed Minimum Reserve System(MRS) – 200 Crore(115Crore gold+85Crore foreign exchange etc.)

2.Banker , Agent and Adviser to the Govt

3.Banker’s Bank : Banking Regulation Act 1949 - Lender to the last resort.(loan to Commerlised Bank)


Democracy is the buzz word for our political system. But is it really so? Is it democracy that a nation where a majority of population is below 40 elects a majority of people above 60 to power? Are we really satisfied with the way our country is being governed? Should it not bother us that at the age people generally take retirement and rest, our politicians actually become eligible to be at the helm of affairs? Why is it so that people below 50 years are considered as political ‘kids’?

The country desperately needs some young leaders who personify energy, enthusiasm, morality, and diligence. No doubt we have progressed a lot in the last 62 years but the development pace would have been completely different had some young torchbearers led this process of development.

At the time of independence, Gandhi called upon the youth to participate actively in the freedom movement. Young leaders likes Nehru came to his reckoning and led the movement. But this is not the case now. Nowadays we have only a handful of young leaders like Rahul Gandhi, Sachin Pilot, Varun Gandhi etc, but they are in the political scenario because they belong to influential political families. It is next to impossible to find a young leader with no political family background in the furor of politics.

There can be two reasons for this deplorable scene of Indian politics. One may be that the youth today are not interested in actively participating in the political field. They are content with what they are doing and how the country is being governed. But this reason seems to hold no ground seeing the discontent shown by the youngsters towards cases like reservation, Jessica lal murder case etc. The youth of modern India are aware of the problems facing our country and the world at large. Given a chance they would be ready to change the political condition of the country for better.

Second reason may be that young people are not given opportunities to prove themselves claiming that they are not equipped with experience to participate actively in the governance of the country. This reason seems to be more logical seeing the monopoly of old leaders in almost all the major political parties of the country. Old people should realize that proper development can take place only when they make way for younger people to take control of the activities.

There are few things which need to be clarified. One that youngsters do not mean people who are 20 years old with no experience at all. Youth in this context is meant to refer people in their 30’s or early 40’s with a good mix of energy and experience. Two, it is not intended to mean that old people should leave the political scene and rest. What is wanted is that they should be there but for guidance because they are treasures of invaluable experience.

There are a few things which I would like to suggest. There should be a retirement age for politicians as well which may be around 65 years. There should also be some educational qualification for politicians. How can we give those illiterates the key to our country whom we can not give the key to our house? People with serious criminal background should not be allowed to contest elections.

As for the youth of our country, they can contribute in more ways than just contesting elections. Much can be done in areas like educating people, raising awareness about various social ills, and many other areas.

We can just wish that the next time we go to vote we find more names of youngsters who can make our country a better place to live in.